“Assuming the challenge is the first step towards excellence. At MONUA 2017, we are looking for brave people, those who are not afraid of defending the idea of a better world”. 

My name is Camilo Torres and I am 19 years old. I am a student of Law and Political Science at Universidad de los Andes, and will be working as Under-Secretary-General for Specialized Agencies at MONUA 2017. Born and raised in Bogotá, I am passionate, loyal and have the clear objective of contributing to the construction of a better country and world. I thoroughly enjoy my studies and I am interested in topics related to transitional justice, armed conflict, international law and human rights. I believe in the strength of dialogue, and that is why I have made of the Model of United Nations project one of my passions, one that I love and that I am planning to continue on. Furthermore, I am a fan of historical novels, the works of Mario Vargas Llosa and Stephen King. Finally, my dream is to work as Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court, participating in the construction of international justice and the resolution of armed conflicts, emphasizing in the case of Colombia. 

This year, the Under-Secretariat for Specialized Agencies has two fundamental principles: innovation and excellence. The participants of the committees under my watch, the Special Peace Tribunal for Colombia, the House of Commons, and the Permanent Court of Arbitration will assume the challenge of working in committees that are different, open to change and extremely demanding. Therefore, contributing to the construction of a fair Colombia, facing the intricacies and troubles of British politics in a transcendental moment of their history, and accepting the tests of international arbitration, are among the responsibilities of the delegates. For that end, there will be an academic team of excellence, always available and capable, to make MONUA a unique experience. As Under-Secretary-General, my role will be to guard for the complete accomplishment of the two pillars mentioned above, chore to which I could not be more committed. This way, MONUA 2017 will be successful if, even for a little part, I am able to transmit some of my love for this spaces of dialogue and negotiation, as well as the intention to make part of this challenge.

Welcome to the Under-Secretariat for Specialized Agencies at MONUA 2017!

Camilo Torres
Under-Secretary-General for Specialized Agencies


+ PERMANENT COURT OF ARBITRATION

LANGUAGE: English.
DELEGATIONS: 2 doubles (lawyers), 9 single (judges).
TOPIC: Chevron Corporation (USA) and Texaco Petroleum Company (USA) v. The Republic of Ecuador.

The Bilateral Investment Treaty between Ecuador and the United States, which serves as basis for the contemporary contention that was brought before the PCA, dates back to 1964. Back then, the Ecuadorian government granted TexPet and the Ecuadorian Gulf Company, permissions for the exploration and exploitation of oil within the country's Amazon region. The latter led to an accord between the two companies, for the contribution to a consortium, by use of the aforementioned concessions, that had these had been granted. Herein, after a series of renegotiations, the Concession Agreement was signed, on 16 August 1973, with an expiration date set for 6 June 1992.

On 6 June 1992, the Concession Agreement ended, given the expiry of its term. The following year, the US and Ecuador entered into a Bilateral Investment Treaty (or BTI) named "The Treaty between the United States of America and the Republic of Ecuador concerning the Encouragement and Reciprocal Protection of Investment". Additionally, on 4 May 1995, the Ecuadorian government, PetroEcuador and TexPet signed an agreement entitled "Contract for Implementing of Environmental Remedial Work and Release from Obligations, Liability and Claims" (also known as the 1995 Settlement Agreement).

Following these accords, in May 2003, various Ecuadorian citizens instituted proceedings before the Court of Ecuador's Lago Agrario, against Chevron, under contentions that TexPet's productive and extractive activities had polluted the environment within the Oriente region.

Subsequently, Chevron and TexPet responded by instituting arbitration proceedings against Ecuador, contending the latter' supposed infractions of the BIT, amongst other claims enlisted within the Notice of Arbitration, and secondary allegations of deliberate obstruction of justice --through the blocking of pertinent judicial proceedings within local tribunals-- by the Ecuadorian government.

Overall interim measures and partial awards have been favorable for TexPet and Chevron.

D O W N L O A D - S T U D Y - G U I D E

+ HOUSE OF COMMONS

LANGUAGE: English.
SINGLE DELEGATION: Representing a Parliamentary.
TOPIC: Negotiation of the exit terms of the United Kingdom from the European Economic Area: the question of basic freedoms in the common market. Capital and merchandise, workers and services freedoms.

The Brexit and the exit negotiation of the United Kingdom from the European Economic Area. MONUA’s 2017 House of Commons will negotiate the exit terms of the United kingdom from the European Economic Area, focusing on the free movement of people, free movement of capitals and goods and free movement of services. The committee will work in connection with the European Parliament, and the delegates of both committees will negotiate amongst them at times. For Brexit to take place, the United Kingdom must invoke Article 50 of the Lisbon Treaty (the legal treaty regulating most European Union matters), an article that starts the legal process of leaving the EU (BBC, 2016). For purposes of this model, MONUA’s House of Commons will work as if Prime Minister Theresa May had invoked this article on March 17, 2017. The main objective of the House of Commons is to work: first by political parties, in order to reach a consensus on the different interests that must be protected during the exit process; and second as a block, negotiating with the delegates of the European Parliament to achieve the best possible solution for the United Kingdom, yet a solution that the European Parliament will approve.

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+ TRIBUNAL ESPECIAL DE PAZ

LANGUAGE: Spanish.
DELEGATIONS: 2 abogados de unidad de investigación (delegación doble), 2 abogados defensores de los acusados (delegación doble), y 9 jueces (delegaciones sencillas).
TOPIC: Caso de Jaime Garzón: Unidad de investigación vs. José Miguel Narváez y Jorge Eliecer Acevedo.

El asesinato del periodista, humorista y activista por la paz, Jaime Garzón Forero ocurrió el 13 de agosto de 1999. El proceso que se ha llevado para determinar la responsabilidad penal de los autores materiales e intelectuales del crimen ha tardado más de 17 años. En un primer momento, la Fiscalía General de la Nación entregó resultados de la investigación, sin embargo, estos fueron encontrados falsos, por lo que se concluyó que en este caso existía una clara desviación de la investigación. La única condena efectiva que logró la justicia fue contra el ex comandante paramilitar Carlos Castaño Gil, quien fue juzgado en ausencia. Sin embargo, no pagó un día de cárcel pues fue presuntamente asesinado por orden de sus hermanos en abril de 2004, por las mismas fuerzas que dirigía.

Así las cosas, se retomó la investigación por parte de la justicia penal ordinaria colombiana, aunque en más de una década no se ha logrado esclarecer los hechos, ni se ha emitido un fallo condenatorio efectivo. No obstante, en los últimos años el caso ha dado todo un giro, pues la investigación de la Fiscalía General de la Nación habría encontrado como presuntos autores intelectuales del homicidio al ex subdirector del Departamento Administrativo de Seguridad (DAS), José Miguel Narváez y al coronel en retiro del Ejército Colombiano, Jorge Eliecer Plazas Acevedo. Para MONUA 2017, el Tribunal Especial para la Paz, en sus facultades contenidas en el Acuerdo de Paz de La Habana, llamará a juicio a estas dos personas, al presuntamente aliarse con fuerzas paramilitares para acabar con la vida del periodista Jaime Garzón, argumentando que este habría sido facilitador de la guerrilla.

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